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Cardiovascular (CV) based activities such as running and cycling have been shown to be effective for slowing or reversing decrements in a plethora of indices relating to whole body function, such as aerobic capacity. Demonstrates the positive effects of CV based exercises on indices of aerobic function in frail elderly populations. However, for improving other indices such as reactive muscle strength, power and hypertrophy, CV based activities may have limited effects. That said, CV based activities are still likely to induce some hypertrophy, especially in the form of high intensity interval training (HIIT).


These are important considerations, because as previously discussed, insufficiencies in indices of strength and power can have significant ameliorating implications on activities of daily living and risks of falls in frail elderly populations. It has also been shown that combining CV based exercises with resistance training (RT) is more effective than CV alone for improving certain indices relating to strength and power production, especially as CV based activities alone may actually hinder improvements to some of these vital indices of functional capacity in ageing populations.


For certain populations such as the frail elderly, progressive RT is likely to be the most effective modality for stimulating muscle hypertrophy, strength and power, while also enhancing energy expenditure and favourably altering body composition