Physical inactivity is harmful to health and it has been estimated that it causes up to 10% of the burden of major non-communicable diseases (coronary heart disease, type-2 diabetes, breast cancer and colon cancer) worldwide. Walking is an important activity for older people and it is promoted as one of the best forms of physical activity for this population as a result of the subsequent health benefits.


Here we find that for a group of older people, there is a wide range in the level of activity achieved, and that there is some relationship between the activity and walking speed, a strong predictor of systemic health. We also found that with ageing, the loading dose in vigorous activity and muscular strength was reduced in women. Finally, we found that during sub-maximal running, the generation of the discrete vertical forces and the change in normalised ankle joint moments in the eccentric phase, were different between the young and older athletes which suggest that master endurance athlete experience a reduction in muscular strength when performing a dynamic movement.


In an attempt to delay the effect of ageing on functional measures, exercise interventions, focussing on strength, power, balance, flexibility, a combination of these and on whole body activities such as walking, football.